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USS Gudgeon (SS-211)

Gudgeon escutcheon


My thanks to Mike Ostlund, the author of the preeminent book about the USS Gudgeon, Find 'Em Chase 'Em Sink 'Em, for the submarine's escutcheon posted above.

The USS Gudgeon (SS-211) was a Gar-class World War II era submarine.  The Gar-class boats were duplicates of the Tambor-class design. 1

The namesake of the USS Gudgeon (species Gobio gobio) is a common small fish of the carp family, Cyprinidae, found in clear, fresh waters of Europe and northern Asia.  A grayish or greenish fish, the gudgeon has a barbel at each corner of its mouth and a row of blackish spots along each side.  Rarely exceeding a length of twenty centimeters (eight inches), it lives in schools and feeds mainly on small animals.  It is edible and is used as fish bait.

The radio call sign of the USS Gudgeon was NAN-EASY-LOVE-VICTOR.

On April 4, 1944, the Gudgeon, captained by Lieutenant Commander Robert A. Bonin, left Pearl Harbor for her twelfth and final war patrol.  On April 7, 1944, she topped off her fuel at Johnston Island, then left for patrol in the open sea area off the northern Mariana Islands.  She was never seen or heard from again. 2

The Gudgeon's operating order instructed her to patrol within the rectangle formed by coordinates 21° N to 24° N and 143° E to 147° E from April 16-22, 1944.  After April 22nd, she would patrol within the square formed by coordinates 17° N to 21° N and 143° E to 147° E.  On May 11, 1944, the Gudgeon was ordered to conduct a special assignment in another area.  The Gudgeon did not acknowledge receipt of this transmission.  On May 14, 1944, her special assignment was given to another submarine.  Another transmission was sent to the Gudgeon ordering her to return to Midway Island.  She was expected there around May 23, 1944.  On June 7, 1944, the Gudgeon was declared overdue and presumed lost. 3

The public announcement of Gudgeon's loss was made on September 12, 1944:

Navy Department Communiqué No. 542, September 12, 1944

1. The submarine USS Gudgeon is overdue from patrol and presumed lost.

2. Next of kin of casualties have been informed.


Loss Possibilities

There are several loss possibilities for the Gudgeon.

1.  The Gudgeon was probably lost on April 18, 1944 after being bombed by Japanese naval aircraft of the 901st Air Group about 166 miles southwest of Iwo Jima.  The Japanese report stated the planes dropped two bombs on a submarine and "The first bomb hit a bow, the second bomb direct on bridge.  The center of the submarine burst open and oil pillars rose."  The submarine was reported to have sunk quickly followed by a large undersea explosion.  The reported location of the attack (22°-45' N, 143°-40' E) was within the Gudgeon's assigned patrol area. 4

2.  The second possibility is a depth charge and bomb attack by unidentified IJN antisubmarine (ASW) surface vessels and possibly aircraft, on May 12, 1944, off Saipan.  Three other American submarines patrolling off Saipan heard and reported this heavy ASW activity, which occurred about 140 miles south of the Gudgeon's second patrol area.  This could have been an attack against a false contact by alert and aggressive Japanese ASW surface vessels and aircraft. 5

3.  Loss as a result of an unreported enemy attack is also a possibility.  This general area was a hotbed of activity during this period.  There were numerous U.S. submarines and enemy ASW forces operating in the in the area. 6


For her first eight war patrols the Gudgeon received the coveted Presidential Unit Citation.  She earned eleven battle stars for her World War II service.  She was the first U.S. Navy submarine to sink an enemy warship in World War II - the Japanese submarine I-73.  She was scored by JANAC with sinking 71,047 tons in twelve Japanese vessels.  Her Alden-McDonald score is seventeen vessels sunk for 81,150 tons and eight vessels damaged for 33,997 tons.  Her SORG score is twenty-four vessels sunk worth 166,400 tons and six vessels damaged worth 41,900 tons. 7

The Gudgeon is also remembered for being the first American submarine to make a Spyron mission from Australia to the Philippines in World War II.  On December 27, 1942, captained by Lieutenant Commander William S. Stovall, the Gudgeon embarked Major Jesus Villamor, six other Filipinos, and a ton of supplies including weapons, a radio, money, medicines, candy, and cigarettes, and departed Brisbane for the Philippines.  On the night of January 14, 1943, the Gudgeon put the men and supplies safely ashore on Negros Island.  On her return trip to Fremantle, on February 9, 1943, the Gudgeon rescued twenty-one Australians, one Englishman, one Portuguese, and five Timorese from enemy-occupied Timor. 8

A list of the personnel lost with the Gudgeon is maintained at http://www.oneternalpatrol.com/uss-gudgeon-211.htm.

Also see:

USS Gudgeon (SS-211) Sixth Patrol

Find 'Em Chase 'Em Sink 'Em



Patrol Data and Captains for the USS Gudgeon (SS-211)


Patrol
No.
Patrol
Area
Patrol Duration
DD-MM-YY
Captain's
Rank & Name
Sailed
From
 
1 Off Kyushu 11-Dec-41 to 29-Jan-42 LCDR Elton W. Grenfell Pearl
 
2 East China Sea 22-Feb-42 to 15-Apr-42 Same Same
 
3 Northwest of
Midway Island
18-May-42 to 14-Jun-42 LCDR Hylan B. Lyon Same
 
4 Caroline Islands;
ended at Fremantle
11-Jul-42 to 02-Sep-42 LCDR William S. Stovall, Jr. Pearl
⇒ Fremantle
 
5 Bismarck Sea 02-Oct-42 to 01-Dec-42 Same Brisbane 9
 
6 Spyron mission
in Philippines;
ended at Fremantle
27-Dec-42 to 18-Feb-43 Same Brisbane
⇒ Fremantle
 
7 Java Sea 13-Mar-43 to 06-Apr-43 LCDR William S. Post, Jr. Fremantle
 
8 Spyron mission
in Philippines;
ended at Pearl
for overhaul
15-Apr-43 to 25-May-43 Same Fremantle
⇒ Pearl
 
9 Mariana Islands;
ended at
Midway
01-Sep-43 to 06-Oct-43 Same Pearl
⇒ Midway
 
10 East China
Sea; ended
at Pearl
31-Oct-43 to 11-Dec-43 Same Midway
⇒ Pearl
 
11 South China Sea 18-Jan-44 to 05-Mar-44 Same Pearl
 
12 Mariana Islands 04-Apr-44 to 18-Apr-44
Lost
LCDR Robert A. Bonin Pearl
 


JANAC Score for the USS Gudgeon (SS-211)


Patrol
No.
Date
DD-MM-YY
Vessel
Name
Vessel
Type
Tonnage
Sunk
Location
Sunk
 
1 27-Jan-42 I-173 Submarine 1,785 28-24N, 178-35E
 
2 26-Mar-42 Unknown Maru Cargo 4,000 e 32-31N, 127-10E
 
2 27-Mar-42 Unknown Maru Passenger-
Cargo
4,000 e 33-53N, 127-33E
 
4 03-Aug-42 Naniwa Maru Cargo 4,858 7-37N, 150-18E
 
5 21-Oct-42 Choko Maru Passenger-
Cargo
6,783 3-30S, 150-30E
 
7 22-Mar-43 Meigen Maru Cargo 5,434 6-31S, 112-47E
 
7 29-Mar-43 Tohoh Maru Tanker 9,997 00-00N, 118-18E
 
8 28-Apr-43 Kamakur Maru Transport 17,526 10-18N, 121-44E
 
8 12-May-43 Sumatra Maru Cargo 5,862 12-43N, 124-08E
 
9 28-Sep-43 Taian Maru Passenger-
Cargo
3,158 15-22N, 145-38E
 
10 23-Nov-43 Nekka Maru Transport 6,784 28-49N, 122-11E
 
10 23-Nov-43 Wakaymiya Frigate 860 28-49N, 122-11E
 
TOTALS   12 vessels 71,047 tons  
 


Alden-McDonald Score for the USS Gudgeon (SS-211)


Patrol
No.
Date
DD-MM-YY
Vessel
Name
Vessel
Type
Tonnage
Sunk
Tonnage
Damaged
 
1 10-Jan-42 Unknown Cargo  4 5,000
 
1 27-Jan-42 I-173 Submarine 1,400  
 
2 26-Mar-42 Unknown Cargo  3 4,000  
 
2 27-Mar-42 Nissho Maru Passenger-
Cargo
  6,526
 
4 03-Aug-42 Naniwa Maru Transport 4,857  
 
4 17-Aug-42 Shinkoku Maru Tanker   10,020
 
4 17-Aug-42 Nichiei Maru Tanker   10,020
 
5 21-Oct-42 Choko Maru Cargo 6,783  
 
7 22-Mar-43 Meigen Maru Cargo 5,448  
 
7 24-Mar-43 Unknown Submarine
Chaser  3
  300
 
7 29-Mar-43 Toho Maru Tanker 9,997  
 
7 29-Mar-43 Kyoei Maru #2 Tanker   1,192
 
8 28-Apr-43 Kamakura Maru Passenger-
Cargo
17,526  
 
8 28-Apr-43 Noko Maru Trawler  2 500  
 
8 05-May-43 Hanazono Maru Passenger-
Cargo
667  
 
8 12-May-43 Sumatra Maru Cargo 5,861  
 
9 17-Sep-43 Shuko Maru Net Layer   889
 
9 28-Sep-43 Taian Maru Passenger-
Cargo
3,158  
 
9 29-Sep-43 Santo Maru Transport 3,266  
 
10 13-Nov-43 Tango Maru Passenger-
Cargo
6,893  
 
10 23-Nov-43 Wakamiya Frigate 870  
 
10 23-Nov-43 Nekka Maru Passenger-
Cargo
6,783  
 
11 11-Feb-44 Satsuma Maru Cargo  3 3,091 sh  
 
11 17-Feb-44 Unknown Sampan  3 50  
 
11 17-Feb-44 Unknown Sampan  3   50
 
  TOTALS 17 vessels sunk
8 vessels damaged
2 = Highly probable
3 = Probable
4 = Possible
sh = Shared credit with
one American aircraft
Tons sunk
81,150
Tons damaged
33,997
 


SORG Score for the USS Gudgeon (SS-211)


USS Gudgeon SORG score report

SORG totals for Gudgeon
24 vessels sunk for 166,400 tons
6 vessels damaged for 41,900 tons




signature
Updated Tuesday, 29-Jul-2014 13:51:13 EDT

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1.  Alden, John D., The Fleet Submarine in the U. S. Navy: A Design and Construction History, p. 74.

2.  United States Submarine Losses World War II, p. 89-90.

3.  Ibid.

4.  Ibid.; Miller, Vernon J., "U. S. Submarine Losses," issue 43, p. 208; Ostlund, Mike, Find 'Em, Chase 'Em, Sink 'Em: The Mysterious Loss of the WWII Submarine USS Gudgeon, p. 353-363.

5.  Miller, Vernon J., op. cit.

6.  Ibid.

7.  Alden, John D., and Craig R. McDonald, United States and Allied Submarine Successes in the Pacific and Far East During World War II, Fourth Edition, see USS Gudgeon (SS-211), Attack Nos. 37, 51, 104, 105, 251, 259, 279, 280, 382, 383, 428, 429, 430, 694, 695, 696, 700, 712, 715, 772, 775, 787, 791, 818, 1116, 1163, 1165, 1166, 1309, 1331, 1332, 1333, 1334, 1618, 1651, and 1652; Submarine war patrol reports on CD, data collected by the Submarine Operations Research Group (SORG) in the report "Results of U. S. Submarine War Patrols Listed Alphabetically by Name of Submarine"; Japanese Naval And Merchant Shipping Losses During World War II By All Causes, Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee, USS Gudgeon (SS-211), published online at http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJN/JANAC-Losses/JANAC-Losses-6.html#gudgeon (accessed September 29, 2011); United States Submarine Losses World War II, p. 89-90; Miller, Vernon J., Japanese Submarine Losses to Allied Submarines in World War II, p. 9, "Sources which identify this submarine [I-73] as I-173 are erroneous.  Renumbering of units of this class did not occur until May 20, 1942."

8.  Jones, David and Peter Noonan, U. S. Subs Down Under: Brisbane, 1942-1945, p. 213-214.

9.  The Gudgeon sailed to Fremantle from Brisbane after her sixth patrol but before her seventh patrol.